Chapter 3

cpdf -scale-page "<scale x> <scale y>" [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -scale-to-fit "<x size> <y size>" [-fast]
     [-scale-to-fit-scale <scale>]
     in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -scale-contents [<scale>] [<position>] [-fast]
     in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -shift "<shift x> <shift y>" [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -rotate <angle> in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -rotateby <angle> in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -upright [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -rotate-contents <angle> [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -hflip [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -vflip [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -mediabox "<x> <y> <w> <h>" in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -cropbox "<x> <y> <w> <h>" in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -remove-cropbox in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

(Also bleed, art, and trim versions of these two commands, for example -artbox, -remove-trimbox)

cpdf -frombox <boxname> -tobox <boxname> [-mediabox-if-missing]
     in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -hard-box <boxname> [-fast] in.pdf [<range>]
     [-mediabox-if-missing] -o out.pdf

cpdf -show-boxes [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

cpdf -trim-marks [-fast] in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

3.1 Page Sizes

Any time when a page size is required, instead of writing, for instance "210mm 197mm" one can instead write a4portrait. Here is a list of supported page sizes:

aa03ppoorrttrraaiitt        aa14ppoorrttrraaiitt          aa25ppoorrttrraaiitt
a6portrait        a7portrait          a8portrait
a9portrait        a10portrait

a0landscape       a1landscape         a2landscape
a3landscape       a4landscape         a5landscape
a6landscape       a7landscape         a8landscape
a9landscape       a10landscape

uusslleetgtaelrppoorrttrraaiitt  uusslleetgtaelrllaannddssccaappee

3.2 Scale Pages

The -scale-page operation scales each page in the range by the X and Y factors given. This scales both the page contents, and the page size itself. It also scales any Crop Box and other boxes (Art Box, Trim Box etc). As with several of these commands, remember to take into account any page rotation when considering what the X and Y axes relate to.

cpdf -scale-page "2 2" in.pdf -o out.pdf

Convert an A4 page to A3, for instance.

The -scale-to-fit operation scales each page in the range to fit a given page size, preserving aspect ratio and centering the result.

cpdf -scale-to-fit "297mm 210mm" in.pdf -o out.pdfcpdf -scale-to-fit a4portrait in.pdf -o out.pdf

Scale a file’s pages to fit A4 portrait.

The scale can optionally be set to a percentage of the available area, instead of filling it.

cpdf -scale-to-fit a4portrait -scale-to-fit-scale 0.9 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Scale a file’s pages to fit A4 portrait, scaling the page 90% of its possible size.

NB: -scale-to-fit operates with respect to the media box not the crop box. If necessary, set the media box to be equal to the crop box first. In addition, -scale-to-fit presently requires that the origin of the media box be (0, 0). This can be assured by preprocessing with -upright (described elsewhere in this chapter).

The -scale-contents operation scales the contents about the center of the crop box (or, if absent, the media box), leaving the page dimensions (boxes) unchanged.

cpdf -scale-contents 0.5 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Scale a file’s contents on all pages to 50% of its original dimensions.

To scale about a point other than the center, one can use the positioning commands described in Section 8.2.4. For example:

cpdf -scale-contents 0.5 -topright 20 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Scale a file’s contents on all pages to 50% of its original dimensions about a point 20pts from its top right corner.

3.3 Shift Page Contents

The -shift operation shifts the contents of each page in the range by X points horizontally and Y points vertically.

cpdf -shift "50 0" in.pdf even -o out.pdf

Shift pages to the right by 50 points (for instance, to increase the binding margin).

3.4 Rotating Pages

There are two ways of rotating pages: (1) setting a value in the PDF file which asks the viewer (e.g. Acrobat) to rotate the page on-the-fly when viewing it (use -rotate or -rotateby) and (2) actually rotating the page contents and/or the page dimensions (use -upright (described elsewhere in this chapter) afterwards or -rotate-contents to just rotate the page contents).

The possible values for -rotate and -rotate-by are 0, 90, 180 and 270, all interpreted as being clockwise. Any value may be used for -rotate-contents.

The -rotate operation sets the viewing rotation of the selected pages to the absolute value given.

cpdf -rotate 90 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Set the rotation of all the pages in the input file to ninety degrees clockwise.

The -rotateby operation changes the viewing rotation of all the given pages by the relative value given.

cpdf -rotateby 90 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Rotate all the pages in the input file by ninety degrees clockwise.

The -rotate-contents operation rotates the contents and dimensions of the page by the given relative value.

cpdf -rotate-contents 90 in.pdf -o out.pdf

Rotate all the page contents in the input file by ninety degrees clockwise. Does not change the page dimensions.

The -upright operation does whatever combination of -rotate and -rotate-contents is required to change the rotation of the document to zero without altering its appearance. In addition, it makes sure the media box has its origin at (0,0), changing other boxes to compensate. This is important because some operations in CPDF (such as scale-to-fit), and in other PDF-processing programs, work properly only when the origin is (0, 0).

cpdf -upright in.pdf -o out.pdf

Make pages upright.

3.5 Flipping Pages

The -hflip and -vflip operations flip the contents of the chosen pages horizontally or vertically. No account is taken of the current page rotation when considering what ”horizontally” and ”vertically” mean, so you may like to use -upright (see above) first.

cpdf -hflip in.pdf even -o out.pdf

Flip the even pages in in.pdf horizontally.

cpdf -vflip in.pdf -o out.pdf

Flip all the pages in in.pdf vertically.

3.6 Boxes and Cropping

All PDF files contain a media box for each page, giving the dimensions of the paper. To change these dimensions (without altering the page contents in any way), use the -mediabox operation.

cpdf -mediabox "0pt 0pt 500pt 500pt" in.pdf -o out.pdf

Set the media box to 500 points square.

The four numbers are minimum x, minimum y, width, height. x coordinates increase to the right, y coordinates increase upwards. PDF file can also optionally contain a crop box for each page, defining to what extent the page is cropped before being displayed or printed. A crop box can be set, changed and removed, without affecting the underlying media box. To set or change the crop box use -cropbox. To remove any existing crop box, use -remove-cropbox.

cpdf -cropbox "0pt 0pt 200mm 200mm" in.pdf -o out.pdf

Crop pages to the bottom left 200-millimeter square of the page.

cpdf -remove-cropbox in.pdf -o out.pdf

Remove cropping.

Note that the crop box is only obeyed in some viewers. Similar operations are available for the bleed, art, and trim boxes (-art, -remove-bleed etc.)

cpdf -frombox <boxname> -tobox <boxname> [-mediabox-if-missing]
     in.pdf [<range>] -o out.pdf

Copy the contents of one box to another.

This operation copies the contents of one box (Media box, Crop box, Trim box etc.) to another. If -mediabox-if-missing is added, the media box will be substituted when the ’from’ box is not set for a given page. For example

cpdf -frombox /TrimBox -tobox /CropBox in.pdf -o out.pdf

copies the Trim Box of each page to the Crop Box of each page. The possible boxes are /MediaBox, /CropBox, /BleedBox, /TrimBox, /ArtBox.

A hard box (one which clips its contents by inserting a clipping rectangle) may be created with the -hard-box operation:

cpdf -hard-box /TrimBox in.pdf -o out.pdf

This means the resultant file may be used as a stamp without contents outside the given box reappearing. The -mediabox-if-missing option may also be used here.

3.7 Showing Boxes and Printer’s Marks

The -show-boxes operation displays the boxes present on each page as method of debugging. Since boxes may be coincident, they are shown in differing colours and dash patterns so they may be identified even where they overlap. The colours are:

M ed ia box  Red
Cropb ox   Green
Artbox     Blue
Trim box    Orange
Bleed box   Pink

The -trim-marks operation adds trim marks to a PDF file. The trim box must be present.

Python Interface

# CHAPTER 3. Pages 
def scalePages(pdf, r, sx, sy): 
    """Scale the page dimensions and content of the given range of pages by 
    the given scale (sx, sy), about (0, 0). Other boxes (crop etc. are altered 
    as appropriate).""" 
def scaleToFit(pdf, r, w, h, scale_to_fit_scale): 
    """Scales the pages in the range to fit new page dimensions (w and h) 
    multiplied by scale_to_fit_scale (typically 1.0).  Other boxes (crop etc.) 
    are altered as appropriate.""" 
def scaleToFitPaper(pdf, r, papersize, scale_to_fit_scale): 
    """Scales the given pages to fit the given page size, possibly multiplied 
    by scale_to_fit_scale (typically 1.0)""" 
def scaleContents(pdf, r, pos, scale): 
    """Scales the contents of the pages in the range about the point given by 
    the position, by the scale given.""" 
def shiftContents(pdf, r, dx, dy): 
    """Shift the content of the pages in the range by (dx, dy).""" 
def rotate(pdf, r, rotation): 
    """Change the viewing rotation of the pages in the range to an 
    absolute value. Appropriate rotations are 0, 90, 180, 270.""" 
def rotateBy(pdf, r, rotation): 
    """Change the viewing rotation of the pages in the range by a 
    given number of degrees. Appropriate values are 90, 180, 270.""" 
def rotateContents(pdf, r, rotation): 
    """Rotate the content about the centre 
    of the page by the given number of degrees, in a clockwise direction.""" 
def upright(pdf, r): 
    """Change the viewing rotation of the pages in the range, counter-rotating 
    the dimensions and content such that there is no visual change.""" 
def hFlip(pdf, r): 
    """Flip horizontally the pages in the range.""" 
def vFlip(pdf, r): 
    """Flip vertically the pages in the range.""" 
def crop(pdf, r, x, y, w, h): 
    """Crop a page to the box defined by (x, y, w, h), replacing any existing 
    crop box.""" 
def removeCrop(pdf, r): 
    """Remove any crop box from pages in the range.""" 
def removeTrim(pdf, r): 
    """Remove any trim box from pages in the range.""" 
def removeArt(pdf, r): 
    """Remove any art box from pages in the range.""" 
def removeBleed(pdf, r): 
    """Remove any bleed box from pages in the range.""" 
def trimMarks(pdf, r): 
    """Add trim marks to the given pages, if the trimbox exists.""" 
def showBoxes(pdf, r): 
    """Show the boxes on the given pages, for debug.""" 
def hardBox(pdf, r, boxname): 
    """Make a given box a hard box i.e clip it explicitly. Boxname could be, 
    for example "/TrimBox"."""